To connect with the internet from outside the normal terrestrial networks you need a to use the satellite connections avaliable.
An antenna and the connected system can be mounted on e.g. a ship, car, plane or be a stand-alone mobile device. The antenna needs to point directly at a satellite to sends and receives signals. There are different kinds of antennas depending on the usage, from flat panels to Parabolic reflector antennas.
Satellites orbits the earth in either Geostationary orbits (36.000 km) or Low- or Medium earth orbits (LEO/MEO) (1200 km/20200 km). The satellite bounces the signal to and from antennas to an earth station.
Land earth stations
Land earth stations are the interface between the satellites and the terrestrial network that we know from landlines and mobile devices. An Earth station sends signals to the satellites or receives one that it then transforms into a signal that can be transmitted via traditional terrestrial networks. Land earths stations are either pointed towards the Geostationary satellite directly above the station, or a Tracker station that continuously track several LEO/MEO satellites to ensure a stable connection.